Progesterone (P4) is the only hormone needed to maintain pregnancy in dogs. Therefore, a competitive inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) could be a safe and effective option to terminate pregnancy by inhibiting P4 synthesis. To address this hypothesis, we investigated the efficacy of trilostane (TRL), a competitive inhibitor of 3β-HSD, in terminating pregnancy in dogs. Twenty-one dogs between days 30 and 38 of pregnancy were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (trilostane (TRL) and aglepristone (AGL)) and an untreated control (CON) group (n = 7 dogs each). Fetal heart rates (FHRs) (measured at 12 h intervals) and serum P4 concentrations (measured at 6 h intervals) were evaluated. The pregnancy termination rates were 0% and 100% in the TRL and AGL groups, respectively. The decrease in the FHR in the TRL and AGL groups was significantly lower than that observed in the CON group. There was a marked decrease in P4 concentrations in the TRL group 6, 54, and 102 h after the initiation of treatment. The luteal expression of StAR appeared to be weaker in the AGL group than the CON group. In conclusion, although a treatment-induced decrease was observed in plasma P4 concentrations, a seven-day TRL treatment alone was not effective in terminating pregnancies. Further studies are needed on the effects of the prolonged administration of TRL with varying doses and frequencies for the termination of mid-term pregnancy in dogs.