To elaborate a strategy of integrated aphids management associated with cereals in Algeria, the insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Mentha rotundifolia against two aphids, namely Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Analysis of the essential oil of M. rotundifolia by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry method (GC-MS) has identified 14 compounds. The minimum concentration to obtain 100% mortality was evaluated at 0.5 mL/L after 3 hours of exposure with R. padi and at 1 mL/L after 24 h of exposure with S. avenae. Probit analysis and LC50 at four different exposure times resulted a LC50 of 0.16 mL/L with R. padi and 0.20 mL/L with S. avenae, both obtained 24 hours after treatment. These results, found with two species of aphids, are a hypothesis that requires further studies on other species to prove that the effect of the essential oil is broad-spectrum.