Evaluation of postharvest processing of hazelnut kernel oil extraction using uniaxial pressure and organic solvent

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Gürdil G. A. K., Kabutey A., Selvi K. Ç., Mizera Č., Herák D., Frańková A.

Processes, vol.8, no.8, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/pr8080957
  • Journal Name: Processes
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: Bulk hazelnut kernels, Heating temperature, Mechanical properties, Oil efficiency, Relaxation process
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Uniaxial loading and organic solvent are small-scale oil expression methods used to evaluate the mechanical behavior, oil content, and oil efficiency of oil-bearing materials aimed at designing a low-cost mechanical pressing system. Bulk kernels of pressing height 40 mm were heated from 40 to 60 °C and compressed at maximum force of 60 kN and speeds from 4 to 8 mm/min. Relaxation times between 3 and 12 min were applied to assess the kernel oil efficiency. The kernel oil point was identified at deformation levels between 15 and 25 mm at a speed of 4 mm/min using a litmus test. The kernel oil was analyzed for peroxide value and free fatty acid. Kernel oil content was determined by Soxhlet extraction. Increased speed caused a serration effect on the force-deformation curve leading to lower oil yield. Lower and upper oil point forces at 6.21 0.58 and 10.61 0.71 kN were observed to be useful for predicting the pressure for maximum output oil. The peroxide value and free fatty acid content of kernel oil decreased with increasing temperature, indicating its quality usage. The relaxation time of 12 min after compression increased kernel oil efficiency of 15.6%. In designing new presses, there is a need to consider compression and relaxation processes to reduce the residual kernel cake oil.