Background: In this randomized controlled study, we investigated the effects of autologous Hemobag blood transfusion (AHBT) and allogenic blood transfusion (ABT) in off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. Methods: Sixty patients who underwent surgery between February 2008 and August 2008 were randomized into 2 groups. The AHBT group (n = 30) consisted of patients who received autologous Hemobag blood transfusion, and the ABT group (n = 30) consisted of patients who received allogenic blood transfusion. All patients underwent OPCAB via sternotomy. The time to extubation, chest tube drainage volume, postoperative white blood cell counts, amount of blood transfusion, sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein concentration, postoperative temperature, and the presence of atelectasis were recorded in the intensive care unit. Results: Intraoperative bleeding and fluid resuscitation were similar in the 2 groups (P > .05); however, there were significant decreases in postoperative blood loss, extubation period, postoperative white cell counts, sedimentation rate, incidence of atelectasis, C-reactive protein, and fever in the AHBT group compared with the ABT group (P < .05). The rate of atrial fibrillation in the AHBT group tended to be lower than in the ABT group. Conclusion: Autologous blood transfusion in OPCAB may be beneficial in certain cardiac surgery patients; however, these beneficial effects require further study to be proved. © 2009 Forum Multimedia Publishing, LLC.