The effects of Gum Arabic, curcumin (Curcuma longa) and Garcinia kola on the rat hippocampus after electromagnetic field exposure: A stereological and histological study

Elamin A. A. E., Deniz O. G., Kaplan S.

JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL NEUROANATOMY, vol.120, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 120
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.102060
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Electromagnetic field, Hippocampus, Stereology, Curcumin, Garcinia kola, Gum Arabic, MOBILE PHONE RADIATION, PYRAMIDAL CELL LOSS, PRENATAL EXPOSURE, OXIDATIVE STRESS, SPINAL-CORD, BRAIN, MORPHOLOGY, KOLAVIRON, 900-MHZ, DAMAGE
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


The present study was designed to focus on the potential effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones on hippocampal pyramidal neurons and to investigate the role of curcumin (Cur), Garcinia kola (GK) and Gum Arabic (GA) in reducing these adverse effects. Fifty-four 12-week-old male Wistar albino rats were used. These were randomly divided into nine groups of six rats each. The control, Cur, GK and GA groups were not exposed to EMF, while the sham group was kept in the EMF exposure system without being exposed to EMF. The EMF+Cur, EMF+GK, EMF+GA and EMF groups were exposed to 900 MHz EMF for one hour a day for 28 days. The number of the pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis (CA) of the hippocampus was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Histopathological changes were evaluated under light and electron microscopes. The activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes were also evaluated from serum samples. Significant levels of CAT and SOD activities were observed in the EMF group compared to the control group (p = 0.000; p = 0.001) respectively. Microscopic observations showed that dark-coloured nuclei with unclear neuron boundaries were frequently observed in the EMF group. Stereological data analysis revealed a significant decrease in the CA's total number of pyramidal neurons in the EMF group compared to the control and sham groups (p = 0.000; p = 0.000) respectively. Cur and GK were observed to provide significant protection in the EMF+Cur and EMF+GK groups compared to the EMF group (p = 0.000; p = 0.000) respectively. No significant difference was observed between the EMF+GA group and EMF group (p = 0.989). Exposure to 900 MHz EMF causes severe alterations in the number and structure of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Cur and GK exhibit a protective effect against these deleterious effects, but GA showed no protective effect.