In this study we aimed to determine the mortality risk factors of early period ventricular septal defect repairment in childhood. We retrospectively investigated 124 children with surgical closure treatment for ventricular septal defect in the last 20 years. Children with additional cardiac anomalies except ASD excluded from the study. Median age for surgery was 2.85 (0.25-17.5) years and early surgical mortality rate was 6,4% (8 patient). Early ages for surgical closure, high pulmonary-systemic flow and resistance rate, extended time for by-pass and have an additional cardiac anomaly like ASD were determined as the risk factors for mortality. Right ventriculotomy has no effect on the early mortality.