Prognostic factors, pathophysiology and novel biomarkers in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

Akinci E., Bodur H., Sunbul M., Leblebicioglu H.

ANTIVIRAL RESEARCH, vol.132, pp.233-243, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 132
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.06.011
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.233-243
  • Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Prognosis, Outcome, Mortality, Viral load, Biochemistry, Severity scoring, NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA, VIRAL LOAD, ORAL RIBAVIRIN, SERUM-LEVELS, MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL-FEATURES, VIRUS, SEVERITY, POLYMORPHISMS, PATHOGENESIS
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a geographically widespread tick-borne zoonosis. The clinical spectrum of the illness varies from mild infection to severe disease and death. In severe cases, hemorrhagic manifestations develop, with fatality rates of 4-20%, depending on the geographic region and quality of the health care. Although vast majority of the CCHF cases were reported from Turkey, mortality rate is lower than the other regions, which is 5% on average. Prediction of the clinical course of the disease enables appropriate management planning by the physician and prompt transportation, if needed, of the patient to a tertiary care hospital for an intensive therapy. Thus, predicting the outcome of the disease may avert potential mortality. There are numerous studies investigating the prognostic factors of CCHF in the literature. Majority of them were reported from Turkey and included investigations on clinical and biochemical parameters, severity scoring systems and some novel biomarkers. Somnolence, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and prolonged bleeding times are the most frequently reported prognostic factors to predict the clinical course of the disease earlier. High viral load seems to be the strongest predictor to make a clinical decision about the patient outcome. The severity scoring systems based on clinically important mortality-related parameters are especially useful for clinicians working in the field to predict the course of the disease and to decide which patient should be referred to a tertiary care hospital for intensive care. In the light of the pathophysiological characteristics of CCHF, some new biomarkers of prognosis including cytokines, soluble adhesion molecules, genetic polymorphisms and coagulopathy parameters were also investigated. However most of these tests are not available to clinicians and they were obtained mostly for research purposes. In spite of the various studies about prognostic factors, they have several inherent limitations, including large variability in the results and confusing data that are not useful for clinicians in routine practice. In this paper, the results of diverse studies of the prediction of the prognosis in CCHF based on epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of the disease were summarized and suggestions for future studies are provided. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.