Objective. To assess the relation between fetal and maternal blood type (ABO, Rh) incompatibility and development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Materials and Methods. A total of 500 pregnant women underwent diagnostic test for GDM by a 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after an 8 to 12-h overnight fast participated in this study. OGTT was performed between the 24-28 weeks of gestation, but participants who were at high risk for GDM were tested after the first prenatal visit. In the postpartum period, maternal and infant blood types were determined. Presence of GDM was evaluated in terms of matched and unmatched fetal and maternal ABO and Rh blood types separately. Results. GDM was detected in 235 participants. Unmatched ABO blood types between the mother-infant pairs were present in 44.7% (n=105) of GDM (+) and 35.8 % (n=95) of GDM (-) patients. Incompatible feto-maternal ABO blood type was positively correlated with development of GDM which was marginally significant. (p=0.045; R=1.2;95% CL; 1.004-1.48). However, Rh feto-maternal blood type incompatibility was not related with development of GDM. Conclusions. Feto-maternal ABO blood type incompatibility may be a weak risk factor for the development of GDM. © Società Editrice Universo (SEU).