Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are known to reside in a bone marrow (BM) niche, which is associated with relatively higher calcium content. HSCs sense and respond to calcium changes. However, how calcium-sensing components modulate HSC function and expansion is largely unknown. We investigated temporal modulation of calcium sensing and Ca2+ homeostasis during ex vivo HSC culture and in vivo. Murine BM-HSCs, human BM, and umbilical cord blood (UCB) mononuclear cells (MNCs) were treated with store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) inhibitors SKF 96365 hydrochloride (abbreviated as SKF) and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Besides, K+ channel inhibitor TEA chloride (abbreviated as TEA) was used to compare the relationship between calcium-activated potassium channel activities. Seven days of SKF treatment induced mouse and human ex vivo BM-HSC expansion as well as UCB-derived primitive HSC expansion. SKF treatment induced the surface expression of CaSR, CXCR4, and adhesion molecules on human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. HSCs expanded with SKF successfully differentiated into blood lineages in recipient animals and demonstrated a higher repopulation capability. Furthermore, modulation of SOCE in the BM-induced HSC content and differentially altered niche-related gene expression profile in vivo. Intriguingly, treatments with SOCE inhibitors SKF and 2-APB boosted the mouse BM mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and human adipose-derived MSCs proliferation, whereas they did not affect the endothelial cell proliferation. These findings suggest that temporal modulation of calcium sensing is crucial in expansion and maintenance of murine HSCs, human HSCs, and mouse BM-MSCs function.