This work is part of an ongoing investigation into the characteristics of myxozoan parasites of freshwater fish in Turkey and was carried out using morphology, histopathology and molecular analysis. A new species of the genus Myxobolus (M. anatolicus sp. nov.) was found infecting the gills of 3 of 34 specimens (8.8%) of Anatolian khramulya Capoeta tinca from the Samsun Province, Northern Turkey. Both morphology and 18S rDNA sequence data revealed that M. anatolicus sp. nov. was distinct from other Myxobolus species found in the gills of cyprinid fishes. The small, white and round-shaped plasmodia, measuring 0.2 to 1.4 mm in diameter, were observed macroscopically in the gills. Histological analysis revealed that the cyst-like plasmodia have an intralamellar-vascular type development. Mature spores of M. anatolicus sp. nov. were oval in both frontal and sutural views, and tapered at the anterior poles. The spores were 10.1 +/- 0.41 (9.4 to 10.7) mu m long, 6.9 +/- 0.28 (6.6 to 7.2) mu m wide, and 4.5 +/- 0.36 (4.4 to 4.6) mu m thick. The 2 polar capsules were pyriform, equal in size, 4.6 +/- 0.45 (4.4 to 4.8) mu m long and 2.1 +/- 0.12 (2 to 2.3) mu m wide. Polar filaments within the polar capsules were coiled with 5 or 6 turns. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. anatolicus sp. nov. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids. This is the first record of a Myxobolus species infecting Anatolian khramulya Capoeta tinca, and the first record of this species from Eurasia.