Variation in plant properties and essential oil composition of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) fruits during stages of maturity

Telci I., Demirtas İ., Sahin A.

Industrial Crops and Products, vol.30, no.1, pp.126-130, 2009 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.02.010
  • Journal Name: Industrial Crops and Products
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.126-130
  • Keywords: Apiaceae, Essential oil, Foeniculum vulgare, Fruit, Maturation, trans-Anethole
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: No


Sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce Mil) is a major aromatic plant belonging to the Apiaceae. The study was conducted to determine variations of plant properties (fruit yield per plant, 1000-fruit weight), essential oil content and composition during four different maturation stages (immature, premature, mature and full mature) in sweet fennel fruit. Essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fruit yield per plant and 1000-fruit weight regularly increased from immature to mature periods, while essential oil content declined with fruit maturity. The content of trans-anethole, the main component, varied between 81.63% and 87.85%, and the variation was statistically insignificant during maturation stages. Some components, particularly monoterpenes, α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, and α-terpinene, varied significantly (p < 0.05) during maturation stages. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.