The aim of this study was to compare plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations of male and female subjects in different training levels and to examine the risks of cardiovascular diseases. For this purpose, 20 male athletes from the National Turkish Wrestling Team (age 23.5 +/- 1.25 years) and 44 male and 51 female students (ages 21.7 +/- 1.72 and 20.20 +/- 1.68 years, respectively) from physical education and sports department and 40 sedentary females (ages 21.14 +/- 1.72 years) participated in this study. Trighceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C and LDL-C levels were determined by a Hitachi 717 Autoanalyser. Apo A-1, Apo B, and Lp(a) levels were determined by Behringer Nephelometer 100. Maximum Oxygen Consumption (VO2 max) values were determined by 12-min run test and the anaerobic power values were measured by Jump Meter Instrument. Energy consumption of basal metabolic rates were for males 1 kcal for an hour and 0.9 kcal for females. There were no significant differences in plasma TC, TG, and small lipoprotein a (Lp(a)) values between four groups (p >.05). No significant differences were found in HDL-C, LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (Apo-Al), and apolipoprotein B100 (Apo-B) values between wrestlers and male students, and between female students and sedentary females (p >.05). HDL-C values of female students and sedentary females were significantly higher when compared with the same values of wrestlers and male students (41.52 and 40.93 mg/100 ml versus 51.92 and 50.10 mg/100 ml). However, LDL-C values were found to be lower in females than males (121.83 and 101.10 mg/100 ml as opposed to 97.7 and 98.4 mg/100 ml) but only significantly lower than in wrestlers (p <.05). Although the wrestlers' training levels were always higher than male students, the lipid and lipoprotein values were not different. These variables were not different between female groups either. But the lipid and lipoprotein profile of female subjects was found to be better than that of males. These results showed that medium and high level of exercises did not cause significant differences in lipid and lipoprotein levels, but the sex differences were very pronounced. Lipid and lipoprotein values of the four groups have indicated that the individuals in these groups would not be exposed to danger of cardiovascular diseases.