Aflatoxins are a group of toxic compounds produced by certain strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. This study was carried out to determine the AFM1 levels of human milk samples in Samsun province, Turkey. The breast milk samples were obtained from 50 healthy lactating women whose ages ranged between 18-38 years. Samples were analysed for AFM1 by microtitre plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 33 mothers (66%) were found to be contaminated with AFM1. Contamination levels were ranging from 0.38 to 9.43 ng/L (methan 4.26 +/- 0.38 ng/L). AFM1 contamination levels of all samples were lower than the maximum tolerance limits of European Commission, Codex Alimentarius and United States for infant and animal milk, for human consumption. The study showed that whereas AFM1 levels were found to be low, contamination was found high in breast milk samples of mothers living in Samsun province. Although it seems that the mother's milk is not at risk for aflatoxins adverse effects of AFM1 in exposed infants and children should be considered. Therefore, routine monitoring of AFM1 should be performed and the study must be extended to both mothers and infants of the other cities in Turkey.