Temür A., Ozbilgin O.

JOURNAL OF ANCIENT HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY, vol.10, no.1, pp.163-181, 2023 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.14795/j.v10i1.810
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.163-181
  • Keywords: Glass, Unguentarium, Samsun Museum, Glass Production, Ancient Glass, BRONZE-AGE SHIPWRECK, ULU-BURUN
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Unguentaria, with distinct functional designations and believed to have descended from different forms such as the alabastron, lekythos, and ampulla, were manufactured of terracotta in the Hellenistic Period. The early specimens have a bloated and spindle-shaped center section. During the Early Imperial Period, a variety of glass samples of unguentaria were produced, especially with the extensive use of the glass-blowing method. While tubular, candlestick, and spool-shaped samples were prevalent in the initial stage, the subsequent procedure resulted in the formation of variants of these shapes. The Samsun Museum houses a significant number of glass artifacts. This study looks at unguentaria that were added to the Samsun Museum's collection by salvage excavation, purchase, or confiscation, and which are assumed to be grave discoveries because the majority of them were discovered intact. The artifacts are essential for understanding the political, commercial, and cultural structure of the time period during which they were produced and used, within the context of archaeological evidence. It also assists us in determining whether or not the production of glass artefacts existed. As it turns out, the artifacts analysed in this context were created in comparable fashions, as a result of the prevalent cultural understanding of the time, throughout a broad region governed by the Roman Empire. Consequently, it is believed that the region had commercial interactions with the cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean. Since no evidence of a glass furnace or glass manufacture has been discovered in Samsun or its environs, it is possible that the artifacts were imported rather than produced locally. Nevertheless, it seems improbable that Amisos, one of the most established and significant coastal cities of the region throughout the Ancient Period, or Neoklaudiopolis, an ancient city in its proximity, remained oblivious to glass manufacture, a lucrative economic raw material.