Purpose: Information is lacking on the protective effects of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) against hyperglycemia-induced retinopathy in rats. This study investigated the biochemical and histopathological aspects of the effect of TPP on hyperglycemia-induced retinopathy induced by alloxan in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were separated into a diabetic TPP-administered group (DTPG), a diabetes control group (DCG) and a healthy group (HG). While the DTPG was given TPP, the DCG and HG were administered distilled water as a solvent at the same concentrations. This procedure was repeated daily for 3 months. At the end of this period, all of the rats were euthanized under thiopental sodium anesthesia, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of the ocular retinal tissues were performed. The results of the DTPG were compared with those of the DCG and HG. Results: TPP prevented hyperglycemia by increasing the amount of malondialdehyde and decreasing endogen antioxidants, including total glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase. In addition, the amounts of the DNA oxidation product 8-hydroxyguanine were significantly lower in the retinas of the DTPG compared to the DCG. In the retinas of the DCG, there was a marked increase in vascular structures and congestion, in addition to edema. In contrast, little vascularization and edema were observed in the DTPG, and there was no congestion. The results suggest that TPP significantly reduced the degree of hyperglycemia-induced retinopathy. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that TPP may be useful for prophylaxis against diabetic retinopathy.