Methods: The study group consisted of 238 unrelated women with osteoporosis and 124 unrelated healthy female controls. All participants, patients and healthy controls, were of Turkish origin from the central region of Turkey. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole venous blood samples using a commercial DNA isolation kit. The ACE gene I/D polymorphism was analysed by polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis. Results: Frequencies of the DD, ID and II genotypes in the patients were 44.5, 41.2 and 14.3 %, and in the controls they were 25.0, 51.6 and 23.4 %, respectively. A significant difference was observed between patients and controls according to genotype frequency (p = 0.001). D and I allele frequencies of the I/D polymorphism were 65.1 and 34.9 % in the patient group and 50.8 and 49.2 % in the control group, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The ACE gene I/D polymorphism could be a genetic factor associated with osteoporosis. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between osteoporosis and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in a Turkish population.