Common problems of thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, goitre, and thyroid nodules. Patients having hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism are mostly diagnosed by biochemical tests. Pathological examination is used in the evaluation of nodules. This paper gives a short information about solitary nodules. Thereafter, it mentions about fine needle aspiration cytology, biopsy, cytological evaluation and pathology of thyroidal lesions. In conclusion, many types of pathological lesions can be seen in thyroid diseases. Multidisciplinary approach including clinician, pathologist, radiologist and nuclear medicine specialist is required for appropriate approach.