Turkey is one of the significant countries for plant genetic resources and genetic diversity in the world and also is one of domestication centers where ancient agriculture started. Over 50 vegetable varieties have been grown in Turkey. This factor is presumably connected with climatic and topographic diversity of Turkey. There were several grown and imported vegetables belonging to Brassica spp., especially six Brassica species (kale, cauliflower, cabbage, brussel sprouts, kohlrabi and broccoli). In this research collecting, characterization, variety breeding programmes and utilization of the genetic resources of cabbage and kale were discussed in Turkey.