This study was performed to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome. This is an age-matched case control study evaluating frequency of PEX in patients over age 40 with the diagnosis of stage 1-4 CKD and those undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Subjects over age 40 with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) and normal kidney functions were studied as a control group. CKD was diagnosed as decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for at least 3 months. Study groups were arranged as group 1 consisting of HD receiving CKD patients, group 2 consisting of CKD patients who do not need HD and group 3 as a control. Demographic properties and the prevalence of PEX were evaluated and compared between groups. Because of the effect of DM on PEX occurrence, it was also evaluated after exclusion of diabetic patients. A total of 101 cases in group 1, 106 cases in group 2 and 117 cases in group 3 were included in the study. Pseudoexfoliation was found in 7 (6.9%) patients in group 1, 5 (4.7%) patients in group 2 and 7 (5.9%) patients in group 3 (p > 0.05). After exclusion of diabetic patients the prevalence of PEX changed as 4 (5.6%) in group 1, 2 (4.4%) in group 2 and 1 (1.8%) in group 3 (p > 0.05). In conclusion, CKD was not associated with increased prevalence of PEX in this study.