Litter is an important component of organic matter replenishment. Rhododendron ponticum L. is an important understory deciduous shrub species of Fagus orientalis Lipsky Forests in the Western Black Sea region. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of altitude and slope on deciduous litter traits. The relationships between litter and soil traits were also investigated with the help of numerical methods. We found that litter and soil traits were significantly changed along the elevational gradient. We also found that C (carbon) and N (nitrogen) concentrations and the C/N ratio of R. ponticum litter were lower than that of other Rhododendron species. The C/N ratios were lower at 400 m, while gradually increasing along the elevational gradient. The C/P ratio of R. ponticum litter was found to be rather high.