Survey of talon cusps in the permanent dentition of a Turkish population

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Gündüz K., Çlenk P.

Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, vol.9, no.5, pp.84-91, 2008 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Doi Number: 10.5005/jcdp-9-5-84
  • Journal Name: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.84-91
  • Keywords: Accessory tubercles, Dental anomaly, Talon cusp
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Aim: Talon cusp is the name given to the accessory tubercles located on the lingual faces of anterior teeth. The occurrence of talon cusps has been reported among Europeans and Asians. However, there are few reports of this anomaly in Caucasians as well as a paucity of literature on its characteristics. Today there are seven million Turkish citizens of Caucasian origin that have settled in the Marmara, Central-Anatolia, East-Anatolia, and Black Sea regions of Turkey. The aim of this study is to present 27 Caucasian cases with 33 taloned teeth. This study is the first that was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of talon cusps in a group of Turkish people. Methods and Materials: A survey of 27 patients examined in the Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology at Ondokuz May?s University in Samsun, Turkey between January, 2003 and June, 2006 was conducted. Their ages ranged from seven to 33 years. A total of 33 talon cusps were diagnosed in the 27 patients. The patients' records and radiographs were evaluated and the following variables were studied: age, sex distribution, affected tooth, type of talon cusp, radiographic evidence of pulp extension, and associated dental anomalies and complications. Results: There were 13 male and 14 female patients with a gender ratio of approximately 1:1. Ten of 33 talon cusps (30%) were seen in maxillary right central incisors while four cases (12%) were in maxillary left central incisors and nine cases (27%) were in maxillary right lateral incisors. Eight cases (24%) were seen in maxillary left lateral incisors, one case (3%) was in a mandibular right central incisor, and one case (3%) was in a mandibular left canine. Fifteen (15) of the 33 talon cusps were Type 1 talons (45%), while eight cases (24%) were Type 2 talons and ten cases (30%) were Type 3 talons. Twelve of the 33 talon cusps (36%) showed radiographic evidence of pulpal extension into the tubercule on periapical radiographs. One patient had gemination (3%) on the maxillary permanent incisors and two patients had mesiodens (6%) in the maxillary anterior region. Conclusion: The talon cusp remains as one of the more uncommon dental anomalies worldwide and in Turkey and presents with different clinical features. Clinical Significance: The talon cusp may be more likely to be associated with other odontogenic anomalies and some systemic conditions; early recognition of this anomaly is essential to provide proper treatment.