Knowing the incidence of cancer in a society plays a significant role in detecting the factors involving its etiology and prevention of the disease. Esophageal cancer is among the most common 10 cancers. The incidence of esophageal cancer changes in terms of histological type of cancer, patient's age, country, and even in different geographical regions of the same country. While the incidence in Western countries is 3 in 100.000, it is 140 in China. Although esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is dominant in Western countries and Asia, frequency of adenocarcinoma is increasing in Western countries.