THE PROJECTIONS OF THE ENGLISH POLITICS IN THE CAUCASIA/CENTRAL ASIA AND THE BLACK SEA AGAINST THE RUSSIAN EXPANSIONISM IN THE 19TH CENTURY IN THE WORKS OF EDMUND SPENCER


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KUŞ A.

Karadeniz İncelemeleri Dergisi, vol.13, no.26, pp.415-438, 2019 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 26
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.18220/kid.542776
  • Journal Name: Karadeniz İncelemeleri Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.415-438
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Russia was born from a little Moscow principality whose name was only known as the town border in the 12th century completed her formation in 14th and 16th centuries. In the mid of the 16th century during the reign of IV. Ivan (Terrible Ivan) the Muslim khanet called Kazan in the region of Volga was taken by Russia in 1552. Then Russia invaded Astrahan in 1556 and made a great achievement in order to realize her objectives in the region. Since that date, she had continued to follow an expansionist policy in the direction of the east and the south. Especially during the reign of I. Petro, Russia set her own strategic objectives and considered descending the warmer seas as her main strategy. In addition, the Central Asia and Caucasia were determined as the major places of maintenance of Russia as well. In the mid of the 17th century, she was able to cross the Asia Continent in the eastern direction and she could reach the Pacific Ocean. During the 18th century when the the wars between Ottoman State and Russia resulted against the Ottoman Empire. Russia also managed to settle in the Black Sea. Thus Russia turned into a big power and the threat in the north for the Ottoman State. Up on these developments, Russia became not only a threat for the Ottoman Empire but also it was considered as a big threat for England, who regarded her Indian route very essential for her political and economic interests. In this context, the purpose of this study aims to analyze and track the politics and the policy followed by England in order to ınderstand the nature of the political relations and the political atmosphere in the region in the 19th century through the impressions and observations of the English traveler named as Edmund Spencer exploiting his three works thus making some contributions to the field of literature.