The aim of this paper is to examine and make a general evaluation of the Turkish hazelnut sector. Turkey accounts for about seventy percent of the world's hazelnut production and eighty percent of its hazelnut exports. Hazelnuts are an important source of income for many farmers in the Black Sea Region. In Turkey, about 400,000 growers cultivate hazelnuts on 560,000 hectares, producing about 600,000 tons of hazelnuts. Current trends show an increase in hazelnut plantation areas and production. Hazelnut productivity in Turkey is lower than in the other main producer countries. In recent years the Turkish Government has not intervened in the hazelnut market, leaving it to operate freely. As a result of this liberalization, hazelnut prices have decreased on both domestic and foreign markets. On the other hand, domestic consumption is very low in Turkey. Turkish hazelnut exports depend primarily on the EU, especially Germany. About sixty five percent of exports are comprised of raw kernels. Due to the high level of domestic prices in Turkey, hazelnut imports from Azerbaijan and Georgia have increased since 2000. This imbalance in the hazelnut market arises from the current disparity between demand and supply due to excess production.