In this study, the prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) among patients in Ondokuz Mayis University Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinics have been investigated. During two months, rectal swab samples were collected weekly from all of the patients hospitalized in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinics, for the surveillance cultures. During the study a total of 85 rectal swabs were obtained from 34 patients who had been hospitalized in the inpatient clinic with 20 bed capacity. The number of samples obtained from the patients varied between 1-6 cultures. All of the patients (100%) had peripheral venous catheters and 27(79%) of patients had used antibiotics. All of the samples were inoculated onto 8 μg/mL gentamicin containing blood agar media, and enterococci were identified by Gram staining, catalase test and at species level by VITEK 2 (bioMérieux, France) automated system. Vancomycin resistance was screened by using 6 μg/mL vancomycin containing brain-heart infusion agar according to CLSI guidelines. The vancomycin MIC values of the strains grown in this medium were determined by microdilution test proposed by CLSI. As a result, a total of 50 samples (59%) belonging to 24 patients yielded enterococci, and the species distribution was as follows; E.faecium (in 16 cases), E.faecalis (in 8 cases), E.casseliflavus (in 6 cases), E.avium (in 3 cases) and E.durans (in 1 case). In our study no vancomycin resistance nor VRE colonization was detected in the patients.