Molecular interactions of trichoderma beta-1,4-glucosidase (ThBglT12) with mycelial cell wall components of phytopathogenic Macrophomina phaseolina

Hood M. H. M., Hamid T. H. T. A., Wahab R. A. A., Huyop F. Z., Kaya Y., Hamid A. A. A. A.

JOURNAL OF BIOMOLECULAR STRUCTURE & DYNAMICS, vol.41, no.7, pp.2831-2847, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 41 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/07391102.2022.2039772
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.2831-2847
  • Keywords: Trichoderma harzianum T12, Macrophomina phaseolina, beta-1,4-glucosidase, beta-1,3/1,4-glucan, chitin, molecular docking, BETA-GLUCOSIDASE, BIOLOGICAL-CONTROL, ACTIVE-SITE, SCORING FUNCTION, CYTOCHROME-C, EFFICIENT, HYDROLYSIS, INSIGHTS, BINDING, GH1
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Efficacy of a beta-1,4-glucosidase from Trichoderma harzianum T12 (ThBglT12) in disrupting the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus M. phaseolina (Macrophomina phaseolina) was studied, as the underlying molecular mechanisms of cell wall recognition remains elusive. In this study, the binding location identified by a consensus of residues predicted by COACH tool, blind docking, and multiple sequence alignment revealed that molecular recognition by ThBglT12 occurred through interactions between the alpha-1,3-glucan, beta-1,3/1,4-glucan, and chitin components of M. phaseolina, with corre sponding binding energies of -7.4, -7.6, -7.5 and -7.8 kcal/mol. The residue consensus verified the participation of Glu172, Tyr304, Trp345, Glu373, Glu430, and Trp431 in the active site pocket of ThBglT12 to bind the ligands, of which Trp345 was the common interacting residue. Root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), total energy, and minimum distance calculation from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation further confirmed the stability and the closeness of the binding ligands into the ThBglT12 active site pocket. The h-bond occupancy by Glu373 and Trp431 instated the role of the nucleophile for substrate recognition and specificity, crucial for cleaving the beta-1,4 linkage. Further investigation showed that the proximity of Glu373 to the anomeric carbon of beta-1,3/1,4-glucan (3.5 angstrom) and chitin (5.5 angstrom) indicates the nucleophiles' readiness to form enzyme-substrate intermediates. Plus, the neighboring water molecule appeared to be correctly positioned and oriented towards the anomeric carbon to hydrolyze the beta-1,3/1,4-glucan and chitin, in less than 4.0 angstrom. In a nutshell, the study verified that the ThBglT12 is a good alternative fungicide to inhibit the growth of M. phaseolina.