CASE HISTORY: A 6-year-old, neutered, female Angora cat presented with a history of lethargy and anorexia for 2 months and a clinically palpable and gradually enlarging, solid mass in the abdominal cavity extending from the last costal arch to the pelvic cavity.CLINICAL FINDINGS: Examination of the cat revealed jaundice, dehydration and hypothermia. Haematological manifestations included lymphopenia and substantial decrease in haematocrit value. Biochemical analysis of the blood revealed hypoglycaemia, three-fold elevated blood urea nitrogen values, increased level of serum aspartate aminotransferase and increased total bilirubin while the creatinine level was normal. Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen showed a disrupted and large hypoechoic area around the left kidney. The cat was anaesthetised and the left kidney was removed, but the cat died following surgery.PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: On post-mortem examination, the left kidney was markedly enlarged and both the cortical and medullary parenchyma were replaced by confluent, multilobulated, pale tan-white, firm nodular masses protruding above the capsular surface. Metastasis was not observed. Cytological examination revealed a population of spindle-shaped cells of variable size, with abundant coarse chromatin and occasionally prominent nucleoli. Initial sections of the kidney were indicative of undifferentiated sarcoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry revealing vimentin-positive and cytokeratin-negative results in all tumour tissues. Additional sections showed very small amounts of both cytokeratin-positive and vimentin-positive areas.DIAGNOSIS: Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) with scant epithelial components originating from left kidney.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clinical and pathological features were similar to those of human SRCC, even though there was no evidence of metastases. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin and cytokeratin may be useful for definitive diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation, although staining of sections from several different parts of the tumour may be necessary. When a primary renal tumour is presented, SRCC should be considered as this diagnosis may influence treatment protocols and the clinical outcome.