Carbonic anhydrase enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and pH regulation in several organisms including fish. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes in fish, few studies have reported the hazardous effects of chemicals on fish CA. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides and fungicides on fish carbonic anhydrase enzymes. For this purpose, screening of rainbow trout carbonic anhydrase activities was carried out in the presence of some pesticides and fungicides. Carbonic anhydrase enzymes were initially purified from rainbow trout liver, muscle, kidney and brain, and exposed to pesticides and fungicides, including mancozeb, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and dinocap. Pesticides and fungicides dose-dependently decreased in vitro CA activity at micromolar concentrations. Since deltamethrin was the most powerful inhibitor for all tissues in in vitro experiments, it was chosen for in vivo analysis as well. rtCAs were significantly inhibited by the three concentrations of deltamethrin (0.25, 1.0 and 2.5 μg/L) at 24th and 48th hours. Our findings indicate that deltamethrin, dinocap, mancozeb and cypermethrin are potent inhibitors for fish CA enzymes, and might cause undesirable results by disrupting acid-base regulation as well as salt transport in freshwater or seawater adapted fish. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.