Increasing land surface temperature (LST) is one of the major urban climatology problems arising in urban development. In this paper, the impact of vegetation and built-up areas on the LST and impact of LST on human health are assessed using the Landsat thermal data in Bartin, Turkey. The results show that there is a constant change in the share of vegetation and built-up areas due to rapid urbanization in Bartin. Strong positive correlation has been found between NDBI and LST while strong negative correlation has been found between NDVI and LST, suggesting their strong impacts on land surface temperatures. Similarly, a strong positive correlation has been observed between LST, sleep deprivation, and heat stress. This study provides precise information on effects of urbanization and man-made activities, which cause major changes in micro-climate and human health in the city. This study can assist decision-makers or planners to plan future developments sustainably.