Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common disease. It is one of the late complications of diabetes mellitus. DPN can lower the quality of life by causing severe painful clinic symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate interleukin (IL)-4 gene variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism on DPN in Turkish population. Two hundred and twenty-seven DPN patients and 241 controls were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction analyses for the IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism. The distribution of genotype frequencies of IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism was statistically different between DPN patients and control group (p = 0.001). The frequency of P1 and P2 alleles was statistically different between DPN patients and control group (p = 0.00009). The results of this study suggested that intron 3 VNTR polymorphism of the IL-4 gene plays an important role in the occurrence of DPN in the Turkish population. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.