Anthocyanins are responsible for the coloration of common bean seeds, and their accumulation is positively correlated with the expression level of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. The MBW (MYB-bHLH-WD40) complex is thought to regulate the expression of these genes, and MYB proteins, which are a key factor in activating anthocyanin pathway genes, have been identified in several plants. This study demonstrated gene structures, chromosomal placements, gene duplications of R2R3-MYBs, miRNAs associated with R2R3-MYBs, and the interaction of these genes with other flavonoid regulatory genes. qRT-PCR was used to investigate the role of specific R2R3-MYBs and flavonoid genes in common bean seed color development. As a result of a comprehensive analysis with the help of in silico tools, we identified 160 R2R3-MYB genes in the common bean genome. We divided these genes into 16 classes on the basis of their intron-exon and motif structures. Except for three, the rest of the common bean R2R3-MYB members were distributed to all chromosomes with different densities, primarily located on chromosomes 3 and 8. We identified a total of 44 duplicated gene pairs dispersed across 11 chromosomes and evolved under purifying selection (Ka/Ks < 1), 19 of which were derived from a whole-genome duplication. Our research uncovered 25 putative repressor PvMYB proteins that contain the EAR motif. Additionally, fifty different cis-regulatory elements regulated by light, stress, and hormone were identified. Within the genome of the common bean, we discovered a total of 36 microRNAs that target a total of 72 R2R3-MYB transcripts. The effect of 16 R2R3-MYB genes and 16 phenylpropanoid pathway genes, selected on the basis of their interaction in the protein-protein interaction map, playing role in the regulation of seed coat color development was evaluated using qRT-PCR in 5 different tissues at different developmental stages. The results revealed that these specific genes have different expression levels during different developmental periods, with higher levels in the pod filling and early pod stages than in the rest of the developmental periods. Furthermore, it was shown that PvTT8 (bHLH), PvTT2 (PvMYB42), PvMYB113, PvTTG1, and PvWD68 genes have effects on the regulation of seed coat color. The findings of this study, which is the first to use whole-genome analysis to identify and characterize the R2R3-MYB genes in common bean, may serve as a reference for future functional research in the legume.