Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in many countries. Although the etiology of prostate cancer largely is unknown, both genetic and environmental factors may be involved. Advanced age, androgen metabolism, and heredity-race have been reported to be possible risk factors. On the other hand, several studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes play a role in prostate cancer development. In this study, association of the prostate cancer risk with genotype frequencies of the Phase I (CYP1A1) and Phase II (GSTM1 and GSTT1) biotransformation enzymes was investigated in 321 Turkish individuals (152 prostate cancer patients and 169 age-matched male controls). The presence or absences of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were determined by a PCR-based method. Genotypes of CYP1A1 were determined by MspI-RFLP. The prevalence of GSTM1 null genotype in the cases was 64 percent, compared to 31 percent in the control group, indicating a strong association (OR = 4.08, 95%Cl = 2.50-6.69). No association was observed between either GSTT1 null genotype or CYP1A1 polymorphism and prostate cancer incidence. No statistically significant association was observed between smoking status of the patients and any of the polymorphisms studied. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that only the GSTM1 null genotype may play an important role as a risk factor for prostate cancer development in Turkish population.