The taxonomic positions of four novel actinomycetes isolated from soil samples, designated KT2142(T), PM2084(T), K236(T) and A4038(T), were established by using a polyphasic approach. The organisms had chemical and morphological features that were consistent with their classification in the genus Pseudonocardia. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the four strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic sugars (cell-wall type IV). Their predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-8(H-4). The major fatty acid was iso-C-(16:0). 16S rRNA gene sequence data supported the classification of the isolates in the genus Pseudonocardia and showed that they formed four distinct branches within the genus. DNA DNA relatedness studies between the isolates and their phylogenetic neighbours showed that they belonged to distinct genomic species. The four isolates were readily distinguished from one another and from the type strains of species classified in the genus Pseudonocardia based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic properties. In conclusion, it is proposed that the four isolates be classified in four novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the names Pseudonocardia cypriaca sp. nov. (type strain KT2142(T)=KCTC 29067(T)=DSM 45511(T)=NRRL B-24882(T)), Pseudonocardia hierapolitana sp. nov. (type strain PM2084(T)=KCTC 29068(T)=DSM 45671(T)=NRRL B-24879(T)), Pseudonocardia salamisensis sp. nov. (type strain K236(T)=KCTC 29100(T)=DSM 45717(T)) and Pseudonocardia kujensis sp. nov. (type strain A4038(T)=KCTC 29062(T)=DSM 45670(T)=NRRL B-24890(T)) are proposed.