The composition of fatty acids and insecticidal effects was performed for the Turkish mosses Dicranum scoparium, Hypnum cupressiforme, Polytrichastrum formosum, Homalothecium lutescens and the Turkish liverwort Conocephalum conicum. All structures were determined by means of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The determination of fatty acids was done using a simple and mild method that utilized different solvent extractions ranging from nonpolar to polar solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively), and the samples were powdered with and without liquid nitrogen. The correlations between the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid contents depending on the solvent polarity and their crushing process by liquid nitrogen were observed. The insecticidal activity of the bryophytes was analyzed by using the methanol, hexane and esterified methanol extracts. The hexane extracts of Polytrichastrum formosum showed the highest insecticidal activity (70.33%) against Sitophilus granarius. Contact toxicity activities of lauric, myristic and palmitic acids besides single dose studies of the solvent extracts were carried out. The highest mortality rate (53.34%) was obtained from the myristic acid among the tested pure fatty acids. The activities of palmitic and lauric acids were 17.75% and 4.32%, respectively. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.