Two hundred and twenty-three samples of dairy products (49 samples of cheese, 94 samples of white cheese, 53 samples of Kashar cheese, and 27 samples of butter), 51 dehulled hazelnut and 40 cacao hazelnut cream, marketed in Ankara, Turkey during September 2002-September 2003, were analysed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), total aflatoxin and AFB1 by microtitre plate enzyme-linked immunosorband assay (ELISA). The incidence of AFM1 contamination in dairy products analysed was 90.58%. AFB1 contamination was detected in 43 (84.32%) of dehulled hazelnut samples (ranging from <1 to 10 ppb) and in 38 (95%) samples of cacao hazelnut cream (ranging from <1 to 13 ppb). Total aflatoxin contamination was determined in 47 (92.16%) of dehulled hazelnut samples and in 39 (97.5%) samples of cacao hazelnut cream. AFM1 levels in 19 (8.52%) of 223 dairy product samples were determined higher than maximum tolerable limit of the Turkish Food Codex, whereas total aflatoxin levels in only one of 51 dehulled hazelnut and one of 40 hazelnut cacao cream samples were exceeded the legal limit. Continuous surevillance programme may be warranted to monitor regularly the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods and foodstuffs which consumed by human. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.