Geographic information system-assisted site quality assessment for hazelnut cultivation using multi-criteria decision analysis in the Black Sea region, Turkey

Tercan E., Dengiz O., ÖZKAN B., DERELİ M. A., Öztekin Y. B.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.29, no.24, pp.35908-35933, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 24
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-021-18127-5
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.35908-35933
  • Keywords: Hazelnut, Land suitability, GIS, Multi-criteria decision analysis, Remote sensing, Soil sampling, Environmental conservation, Sustainable agriculture, LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT, SOIL PARENT MATERIAL, FUZZY-AHP, AGRICULTURAL LAND, EVALUATION MODEL, HEAVY-METALS, GIS, PROVINCE, POLLUTION, GROWTH
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Developing land suitability models for strategically critical agricultural products to expand sustainable agricultural policies and sensitive agriculture management has become a significant trend. This study aims to improve a unique land suitability model for hazelnut cultivation by applying the criteria set (7 main criteria, 35 sub-criteria) including qualitative and quantitative reasons, integrated fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, inverse distance weighting, multi-criteria decision analysis, geographic information system, and weighted linear combination approaches. The model developed in the present study was applied and tested in unye District of Ordu Province, where hazelnut production in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey is an important economic activity. While 71.17% of the study area is classified as very highly suitable, highly suitable, and moderately suitable, 28.83% of the study area has marginally suitable and unsuitable properties for hazelnut cultivation. Generally, it was determined that the coastal parts of the study area were the most suitable areas for hazelnut growing. The hazelnut land suitability model's two main criteria impacting the final score values are climatic and topographic conditions, respectively. Heavy metal pollution and physical, chemical, and fertility conditions related to soil properties followed these, respectively. The first ten sub-criteria with the highest weight value were determined as elevation, annual average temperature, annual average precipitation, aspect, annual average relative humidity, nickel (pollution), slope, annual average maximum temperature, lead (pollution), and soil depth, respectively. Existing hazelnut cultivation areas were used to test the model. Of the existing cultivation areas, 75.59% coincided with the very highly suitable, highly suitable, and moderately suitable classes presented in this study, while 17.15% were in marginally suitable and 7.26% in unsuitable classes. The study results reveal that the hazelnut land suitability model developed is suitable in mild climate conditions. Using this model as a general transition model will be beneficial to test it in areas containing similar climatic conditions and various soil properties. This study will create a rational background in ensuring the sustainable food production system and security, agricultural land use planning, strategic planning and management of the hazelnut plant, increasing agricultural productivity and income, and the ecosystem.