We conducted a prospective study of targeted surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in 13 intensive care units (ICUs) from 12 Turkish hospitals, all members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC). The definitions of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNISS) were applied. During the three-year study, 3288 patients for accumulated duration of 37631 days acquired 1277 device-associated infections (DAI), an overall rate of 38.3% or 33.9 DAls per 1000 ICU-days. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (47.4% of all DAI, 26.5 cases per 1000 ventilator-days) gave the highest risk, followed by central venous catheter (CVC)-retated bloodstream infections (30.4% of all DAI, 17.6 cases per 1000 catheter-days) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (22.1% of all DAI, 8.3 cases per 1000 catheter-days). Overall 89.2% of all Staphylococcus aureus infections were caused by meticillin-resistant strains, 48.2% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, 52.0% to ceftazidime, and 33.2% to piperacilin-tazobactam; 51.1% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, 50.7% to ceftazidime, 38.7% to imipenem, and 30.0% to piperacilin-tazobactam; 1.9% of Enterococcus sp. isolates were resistant to vancomycin. This is the first multi-centre study showing DAI in Turkish ICUs. DAI rates in the ICUs of Turkey are higher than reports from industrialized countries. (c) 2006 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.