The superficial temporal artery (STA)-based flaps have been used for different reconstructive purposes. These operations may cause facial nerve injury. The variations of the STA and its relation to temporal branch of the facial nerve (TBFN) were evaluated in this study. Thirteen cadavers with 26 STA and TBFN have been dissected. The bifurcation of STA was found to be 60% above the superior border of the zygomatic arc and 40% below this level. The mean lengths of frontal and temporal branches (FB and TB) of STA were 11.5 and 11.4 cm, respectively. The mean numbers of perforators of FB and TB to deep plane were 1.30 and 1.34, respectively. The mean diameter of STA at the superior border of zygomatic arc was 2.5 mm. The mean diameters of TB and FB at the level of bifurcation were 1.8 mm and 2.0 mm, respectively. The mean number of TBFN at the level of zygomatic arc was 3.70. The mean distance of the first and last branching of TBFN to tragus was found to be 24 mm. The mean number of TBFN at the level of the middle orbita was found to be 2.7. The mean distance of first and last branches of TBFN to the lateral orbital rim was 12 and 24 mm, respectively. The results found in this study may increase the accuracy of flaps based on STA and decrease the risk of facial nerve paralysis during these operations.