In this research, a new series of (E)-3-(4-substitutedphenyl)-1-(4’-morpholinophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one derivatives 1–7 was synthesized, aiming to develop effective antiproliferative agents. The antiproliferative activities of compounds 1–7 were examined against HeLa and C6 cell lines at eight different concentrations using the BrdU ELISA assay. The activity results were compared with reference anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Compound 1 had almost the same antiproliferative activity as 5-FU. Compounds 1–7 were found to have greater effects against the C6 cell line than the HeLa cell line. These compounds were also tested in order to determine their effects on enzyme activities. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited strong activator characteristics against pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2) with AC50 values of 2.2 and 14.28 µM. Compounds 2, 3, and 7 acted as inhibitors with IC50 values in the range of 84.08–165.38 µM for carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme I (hCA I), and compounds 3 and 4 demonstrated inhibitory effects against carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme II (hCA II) with IC50 values of 108.11 and 112.52 µM, respectively. hCA II was activated by derivatives 1, 2, 6, and 7 with AC50 values in the range of 85.53–146.59 µM.