Optimal design and operation of integrated microgrids under intermittent renewable energy sources coupled with green hydrogen and demand scenarios

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Tatar S. M., Akulker H., Sildir H., Aydin E.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.47, no.65, pp.27848-27865, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47 Issue: 65
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.06.130
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Artic & Antarctic Regions, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Environment Index, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.27848-27865
  • Keywords: Green hydrogen, Mixed-integer linear programming, Optimal renewable energy integration, Renewable energy management, Scenario generation
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Renewable energy integration into existing or new energy hubs together with Green technologies such as Power to Gas and Green Hydrogen has become essential because of the aim of keeping the average global temperature rise within 2 °C with regard to the Paris Agreement. Hence, all energy markets are expected to face substantial transitions worldwide. On the other hand, investigation of renewable energy systems integrated with green chemical conversion, and in particular combination of green hydrogen and synthetic methanation, is still a scarce subject in the literature in terms of optimal and simultaneous design and operation for integrated energy grids under weather intermittency and demand uncertainty. In fact, the integration of such promising new technologies has been studied mainly in the operational phase, without considering design and management simultaneously. Thus, in this work, a multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is formulated to deal with the aforementioned challenges. Under current carbon dioxide limitations dictated by the Paris Agreement, this model computes the best configuration of the renewable and non-renewable-based generators, their optimal rated powers, capacities and scheduling sequences from a large candidate pool containing thirty-nine different equipment simultaneously. Moreover, the effect of the intermittent nature of renewable resources is analyzed comprehensively under three different scenarios for a specific location. Accordingly, a practical scenario generation method is proposed in this work. It is observed that photovoltaic, oil co-generator, reciprocating ICE, micro turbine, and bio-gasifier are the equipment that is commonly chosen under the three different scenarios. Results also show that concepts such as green hydrogen and power-to-gas are currently not preferable for the investigated location. On the other hand, analysis shows that if the emission limits are getting tightened, it is expected that constructing renewable resource-based grids will be economically more feasible.