Macro anatomical investigations of the cranial cervical ganglion in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

Kabak M., Onuk B.

ANKARA UNIVERSITESI VETERINER FAKULTESI DERGISI, vol.57, no.1, pp.1-6, 2010 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 57 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-6
  • Keywords: Anatomy, cranial cervical ganglion, roe deer, HORNERS-SYNDROME, GROSS-ANATOMY, PIG, HAMSTER, NERVE, CATS, DOGS
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


in this study, left and right cranial cervical ganglia (ganglion cervicale craniale) of 9 (6 male, 3 female) roe deer, weighing 20-30 kg were inspected macro anatomically. The cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) was found at ventral of the atlas, caudal of the pharynx, medial retropharyngeal lymph node and levator veli palatini muscle, cranial to the divergence place to final branches of common carotid artery. The internal carotid nerve and jugular nerve ramified from the cranial end of CCG. The jugular nerve gave branches that merged with the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. The internal carotid nerve varied among cadavers regarding the number of branches (2, 3 or 4). The CCG gave thin nerve branches that reached to various anatomical structures including wall of the pharynx, the first cervical, accessory, hypoglossal and vagus nerves. The external carotid nerves, with one or two branches, also originated from different areas of CCG. The nerves ramified as two branches from CCG and formed a plexus at the ventral of the caudal part of CCG. This plexus gave thin branches to the nearby anatomical structures at that region. In conclusion, nerves ramifying from CCG of the roe deer varied in number among cadavers. The number and course of these nerves, especially external carotid nerves, were observed different than other species.