Chemical weathering indices applied to soils developed on old lake sediments in a semi-arid region of Turkey

Creative Commons License

Tunçay T., Dengiz O., BAYRAMİN İ., Kilic S., Baskan O.

Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, vol.8, no.1, pp.60-72, 2019 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.18393/ejss.499122
  • Journal Name: Eurasian Journal of Soil Science
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.60-72
  • Keywords: Alteration index, Dry region, Geochemical evolution, Soil formation
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Climate is a major influence on weathering processes affecting soil parent materials. Important contributors to soil formation in arid and semi-arid climatic zones are the diurnal cycles of solar heating and cooling that cause mechanical or physical disintegration of rock or parent materials, and wind-blown sands that score and abrade exposed rock surfaces. By using the Soil Taxonomy classification system, the initial aim of this study was to carry out a pedological evaluation for four soil profiles, classified as Xeric Haplocalcid and Xeric Haplocambid, formed on different parent materials (limestone, marl and old alluvial deposits) under the same conditions, including topography and vegetation, in a semiarid region. The second stage was the exploration of the similarities and differences in the classifications resulting from either the pedogenic processes, or from other factors, by determining the degree of soil weathering using geochemical data. To achieve this, soil samples were collected from the horizons to investigate their mineralogical, geochemical and physiochemical properties. The study also considered other features, such as the pedogenic evolution of soils, through the use of weathering indices, namely the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), Base/R2O3 Ratio, Weathering Index of Parker (WIP) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA). The results clearly showed that soil development at the Altınova State Farm at Konya in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey is due to slow pr ogressive weathering. For this case, the main indicators are secondary calcium carbonate illuviation and weak structural development with a weathering ratio of silicon to aluminium greater than two in all profiles.