The role of gender and education level on maximum phonation time in healthy adults Saǧlikli yetişkinlerde cinsiyet ve eǧitim düzeyinin maksimum fonasyon süresi üzerine etkisi

Güven A. G., Cangökçe A. G. Ö.

Ondokuz Mayis Universitesi Tip Dergisi, vol.22, no.1, pp.12-17, 2005 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Journal Name: Ondokuz Mayis Universitesi Tip Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.12-17
  • Keywords: Maximum phonation time, S/z ratio, Sustained /s/ phonation, Sustained /z/ phonation, Sustained vowel production
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


Present study is designed to investigate the effects of gender and education level on maximum phonation time. A total of 150 healthy adults aged between 20-35 years, and grouped in three levels of education (primary school, high school and university graduates) were served as participants. Maximum phonation time was measured by sustained vowel /a/ production. Sustained /s/ and /z/ production, and s/z ratio were used for measurement of phonatory and respiratory efficiency. A two way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Significant main effects were found for gender and education level for sustained vowel /a/ production. Significant main and interaction effects for gender and education level were found for sustained /s/ and /z/ productions. However neither significant main effects nor interaction effects were found for s/z ratio.