The aim of this study was to investigate the serum lipid profile in naturally infected symptomatic dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A total of 20 owned dogs, comprising 10 healthy controls and 10 infected dogs with L. infantum were enrolled in this study. The clinical history and physical examination were performed in all dogs. Infected dogs showed one or more signs of canine leishmaniasis such as skin lesions, loss of weight, conjunctivitis, alopecia, scaling, onychogryphosis, lymphadenopathy, weakness, anorexia, and epistaxis. The diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was confirmed by the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) with an antibody titer over or equal to 1:128. None of the healthy dogs had clinical signs consistent with any of the disease and were all seronegative for leishmaniasis. In this study, serum cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) in symptomatic dogs when compared to control animals. However, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were lower (P<0.01) than those of the controls. In conclusion, it was determined that CVL induce significant changes in serum lipid profile.