The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the surface deformations of different NiTi rotary files after retreatment under scanning electron microscope (SEM). A total of 240 upper central incisor teeth were obturated with vertical compaction technique and divided into 6 groups. Root canals were retreated by ProTaper Next (PTN), Twisted File Adaptive (TFA), Reciproc (RPC), ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR), R-Endo and Mtwo-R NiTi rotary systems. The files investigated under SEM at different magnifications and photomicrographs were captured. The photomicrographs were classified and scored. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests were performed for statistical analyze at 5% significance level. PTR and RPC groups were free of defects like file separation, curving and unwinding but PTN and TFA groups showed 50% file separation. According to the photomicrographs that were captured at high magnification; there were no statistically difference between groups at the coronal thirds of the files (P > 0.05), at the middle third PTN and TFA groups showed statistically more deformation than the other groups (P < 0.05). At the apical third Reciproc was statistically showed less deformation than the other all groups (P < 0.05). Within the limitation of this in vitro study, all NiTi files showed surface deformation in SEM observation after retreatment procedures. There was less deformation in PTR and RPC groups according to other.