Autoimmune and neuroimmune diseases prevalence rates are rising enormously. It would be difficult to explain with genetic and environmental factors. Noteworthy, this rising maybe related with childhood vaccine programs. There is also a lack of information about this topic in pediatric and family medicine practice in some countries like Turkey. Prevention and treatment of these diseases is possible if pathogenesis could be well understood. We attempt to review this topic in immunological and neurological perspectives for this purpose. We searched Pubmed from year 2000 to date with neuroimmune, autoimmune, measles and vaccine link keywords in some combinations and related topics. The obtained information from this search dealt with some important subheadings. There is a need for further investigations of neuroimmune disease and the possible vaccine link.