Development of Respect for Differences Scale for middle school students: validity and reliability study

GÜLÜM B., Türker İ. H.

JOURNAL FOR MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION, vol.17, no.3, pp.356-366, 2023 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1108/jme-11-2022-0142
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.356-366
  • Keywords: Respect for Differences Scale, The value of respect for differences, Values education, Scale development, Middle school students
  • Ondokuz Mayıs University Affiliated: Yes


PurposeThe purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale that can measure the level of respect for differences of middle school students. The validity and reliability studies of the scale draft prepared as a result of the opinions received were carried out on 964 middle school students. Design/methodology/approachThe sequential exploratory mixed method was used. In the study, attitude items were created by examining the studies in the literature with qualitative methods, and the scale was then finalized by applying tests for the attitude scale prepared with quantitative methods. FindingsAs a result of the exploratory factor analysis made on the data obtained, a structure consisting of 20 items and four factors as "gender", "disability status", "physical appearance" and "cultural identity" were reached. Also, it was seen that the scale identified 56% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis that was performed on another sample showed that the sample fit of the scale was at an acceptable level. The reliability coefficient of the scale was calculated as Cronbach's alpha = 0.815; composite reliability was ranged between 0.766 and 0.894 and the internal consistency of the scale was quite high. It was concluded that the scale developed to determine the level of respect for differences is a valid and reliable measurement tool. Originality/valueThis study is considered significant in terms of presenting a valid and reliable scale that will reveal the attitudes of middle school students towards differences in the literature.