Arcobacter cryaerophilus was isolated from naturally infected rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and its pathogenicity was tested by intramuscular injection into healthy 1-year-old high-body-weight (HBW) and low-body-weight (LBW) normally pigmented rainbow trout and albino crosses. Experimental infections caused deaths with gross clinical abnormalities such as exophthalmia, liver damage, bloody hemorrhagic kidney and heart, and swollen intestines. No significant differences in deaths were observed among the three infected fish groups. Hematocrit levels in blood of the experimentally infected HBW rainbow trout were significantly less than in healthy fish. No significant decreases were observed in the serum total protein of both the experimentally infected albino crosses and the high weight groups. Albumin and creatinine concentrations in serum were not significantly different among the three treatments.