BackgroundThis study aimed to investigate the remineralization efficiency of Sensodyne Promine containing Sodium flouride (NaF), GC Tooth Mousse containing CPP-ACP, and Agarta herbal toothpaste on initial caries and erosion using micro-computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).MethodsForty-five third-molar teeth for micro-CT were divided into three main groups after initial scans (T-1) were completed. Artificial caries lesions were created with the demineralization cycle (group 1, n = 15) and artificial erosion lesions were created with orange juice (group 2, n = 15) and Cola (group 3, n = 15), and second scans (T-2) were performed. The groups were divided into three subgroups within themselves. Sensodyne Promine toothpaste (subgroup 1a, 2a, 3a), GC Tooth Mousse topical cream (subgroup 1b, 2b, 3b), and Agarta herbal toothpaste (subgroup 1c, 2c, 3c) were applied using soft-tipped brushes for 2 min, twice per day for 15 days, and then a third scan (T-3) was performed. Mineral density, surface area, and lesion volume and depth were calculated using micro-CT. Changes in the surface morphology of the teeth were examined using SEM in 13 samples representing each group, subgroup, and healthy enamel. In the analysis of the data obtained from the scans performed at three different times (T-1, T-2, T-3), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test, repeated measures ANOVA with the post-hoc Bonferroni test, and paired sample t-test analyses were used.ResultsAll three agents caused a statistically significant increase in mineral density, and a decrease in surface area and lesion volume and depth (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in remineralization efficiency (p > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding the mineral density of the tissue that increased after remineralization (NaF > CPP-ACP > He; p < 0.05).ConclusionThe remineralization efficacy of herbal toothpaste as an alternative to NaF and CPP-ACP was found to be successful.