Background and objective General practitioners (GPs) and paediatricians are very important in the management of sore throat in terms of providing correct diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of GPs and paediatricians towards Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) tonsillopharyngitis. Methods Three vignettes/case studies, in which the causative agents were GABHS, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and non-EBV viral infection, were presented as part of a questionnaire sent to paediatricians and GPs to elicit information regarding their diagnosis and treatment of tonsillopharyngitis. Results In all, 236 physicians responded to the questionnaire (126 paediatricians, 106 GPs). GPs registered more accurate diagnoses of GABHS tonsillopharyngitis and tended to administer more symptomatic treatment in the case of non-EBV tonsillopharyngitis than paediatricians. Paediatricians requested more tests in the diagnosis of GABHS tonsillopharyngitis than GPs. Discussion Most GPs and paediatricians possess adequate knowledge regarding GABHS diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of patients. Differences between the hospital and general practice settings may have affected the approach to symptomatic treatment and requesting tests.